The Convention on Wetlands came into force for Kenya on 5 October 1990. Kenya presently has 6 sites designated as Wetlands of International Importance, with a surface area of 265,449 hectares.

Environmental issues in and around these RAMSAR sites include Deforestation, Erosion, Desertification, Water shortage and degraded Water quality, Flooding, Poaching of Protected Wildlife and domestic and industrial Pollution. The major factors that have to be managed to maintain human wellbeing and biodiversity are all related to the steadily increasing human population. The main linkages between society and ecology in relation to the need for making long term resilience plans are set out in the following mind map.


The above mind map is particularly relevant to the Lake Nakuru National Park. This protected area is located within Nakuru municipality, about 3Km south of Nakuru town, in the Nakuru district of Rift Valley province of Kenya. The lake is alkaline as the catchment rocks contain a high proportion of alkaline minerals mat are leached into the lake. The lake and the catchment area is rich in a variety of habitats. The Upland forest is the main water catchment area; it is rich in forest products, and biodiversity. The catchment has examples of land use i.e from pastoralism to large-scale commercial farms and ranches. The latter have developed over the past one hundred and fifty years and are associated with and increasing migrant human population, which has led to increased pressure on all ecosystem services. Developments in Nakuru town and other urban centres have affected negatively on the catchment area and more so on theLake Nakuru ecosystem. These impacts are manifested through erosion-high silt loads, and pollution from industrial and domestic wastes, agro-chemicals, urbanization and degradation, deforestation and encroachment into sensitive habitats. There is the need for all stakeholders to work together and come up with policies and strategies to ensure sound environmental management of the catchment area. The government has introduced stringent measures on water and waste management targeting polluters in private and public institutions.

Green Map in preparation